We remained critical, yet concise and objective in writing analysis. We also based our conclusions about each character on three main areas - the outward appearance, their behavior and personality, and the relationship between the characters.
A rich but cheap moneylender. He spent his childhood in a desolate boarding school, with solely imaginary friends who kept him company. As he grew, he started to love money more than anything, which is why he lost, among other things, the love of his life. Even though his first job was with a kind employer, Scrooge became a cold-blooded, evil boss to his transcriber Bob Cratchit. On Christmas Eve, Scrooge is visited by the ghost of his ex-business partner, Jacob Marley, who warns him of a horrible fate if he doesn't change. After being visited by three ghosts, Scrooge learns the importance of interacting with the community, including the sick and the needy, whom he formerly thought useless.
The narrator indicates that when readers first meet Ebenezer Scrooge, he lives a disconnected life. Even cold weather doesn't concern him, because - metaphorically - he has a cold heart. Scrooge chose not to allow weather to control his emotions or behavior. If the weather doesn't change, common people will surely not be affected. His apathy repels people, which fits him well.
He has no wish to support others celebrating Christmas when he's not honoring the holiday himself. His claim that he "cannot afford" to make other people happy implies his lost priorities. He also thinks that the poor should only blame themselves for their poverty. Scrooge's view that workers' houses and prisons would solve the issues of the poor was a standard idea in British society at the time.
Scrooge also recalls one of his childhood memories when his parents left him alone at school. He remembers the character from the book One Thousand and One Night. Readers discover that Scrooge lived a lonesome childhood, but he balanced it with creativity and fun. Readers might suppose that Scrooge set self-restraint on the emotional need. He feels sorry for himself which shows a hint of sympathy.
The narrator also describes how Scrooge reacts to reliving the Fezziwig Christmas party. Mr. Fezziwig loved Scrooge when he was young. Remembering this happy memory - probably long forgotten, but now vividly remembered - Scrooge takes him back to the time before he became cold. It reminds him that Christmas once meant something to him and that he enjoyed the company of people.
In another scene reflecting on the Christmas past, Scrooge's love of his life Belle describes why she broke up with him. Scrooge has changed since they met. Belle understands that Scrooge wants to protect himself from poverty as he was once poor. But he didn't even care about her anymore, he only cared about the money. She no longer admired the man he had become, so she freed him to be alone with his one true love - his money.
Scrooge was happy with the arrival of the second of the three ghosts, the Ghost of Christmas Present. Scrooge realized that the Ghost of Christmas Past showed him rememberings that made him think about his past, so Scrooge requested the Ghost of Christmas Present to help him as much as he could. Here, he transformed the mindset he had with the Ghost of Christmas Past, but the transformation he needed to go through has already begun.
He sees Fred talking about his uncle's wife and his friends. Even though the others "have no patience" for the cranky old man, this nephew pities him. He claims that Scrooge's cheapness hurts Scrooge almost as much as anyone else. Scrooge can use his money to make others (and himself) happy, but as he cheaply saves it, he misses this happiness and joy. Fred's benevolence contrasts with Scrooge's absence of humanity.
The author also explains a stock market background where Scrooge and the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come arise. Scrooge found himself among business people with whom he would find himself in business. When he can't see himself, he assumes that he may have changed in the future. Readers may see that Scrooge has already formed an opinion about his change for the better. Scrooge later discovers that he hasn't changed but that he's dead when the ghost shows him and starts panicking. The reader can notice that Scrooge's change and that the fear of death makes a real change in Scrooge's heart.
When Scrooge wakes up, he doesn't know how much time has passed. After knowing the lesson, he discovers that everything he believed he knew was overrated. The author adds a symbol of a baby - a new life that he sees with new eyes - meaning he will make better decisions than before. After seeing the baby Scrooge feels it is the first day of his new life.
A penniless office worker who represents the hard-working poor man in London. Even though he's been forced to work in bad conditions for a very low salary, Bob stays loyal to Scrooge, even defending his rudeness towards his family. Even though he's poor, Bob stays optimistic, caring, and joyful. He works hard to provide for his family, enjoys holiday traditions and family togetherness. Dickens sympathetically described Bob hoping it will encourage wealthy benefactors in Victorian London to help the needy.
The author describes a scene in Scrooge's office where charcoal is needed to heat the office during the winter. Scrooge forces his employer Bob Cratchit to the lowest fire, expecting him to work even though he's cold. Bob knows that Scrooge will threaten to fire him if he adds more coal to the fire. So he attempts to warm up as best he can (on the candle) in order not to get Scrooge angry. Despite inadequate working conditions, Bob can't afford to lose his job as he has to support his family. Bob sorrows silently for the good of his family.
Scrooge hears Bob Cratchit happily return Fred's Christmas card. Knowing that his clerk has a low salary, he thinks that he is crazy for being so cheerful for Christmas. Scrooge's joke about Bedlam, a famous madhouse, recalls his chaos in a world where people can be compassionate even though they're poor. Scrooge thinks he can only be happy with money, but ironically, he stays miserable even though he has his wealth. Bob knows that honoring Christmas has nothing to do with money and that wishing Fred a Happy Christmas costs him nothing - but these two words will bring happiness to both of them, which Scrooge has lost.
The author explains the moment when Bob Cratchit closes the store, enthusiastic about the Christmas Eve celebration. On his way home, he joins a group of boys sledding, even though he's not wearing a warm coat. Bob feels warm due to his good mood. He's a good and grown man and father, Bob childishly cherishes innocent fun - which may be the reason why he is such a good father.
Scrooge describes a scene in the house of the Cratchit family while visiting with the Ghost of Christmas Present. Readers see the scene through his eyes, and his choice of words voices a sense of wonder at Bob's behavior. Bob is clearly acting like he loves Tiny Tim so much and is terrified that the disease could take him away from him. The reader can also see the lack of parental love in Scrooge's childhood. Scrooge for the first time realized how much some fathers love their children.
When Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come arrives, Tiny Tim has just died. Scrooge sees how Bob tries to turn his death into a lesson for his other children by asking them to behave as Tiny Tim has always behaved. With these words, Bob demonstrates his mature side as the leader of his family - even in grief, Bob tries to keep his family dedicated and loving each other.
Ghost of Christmas Past
The first of three ghosts that haunt Scrooge on Christmas Eve. The ghost is dressed in white, has white hair, and has white light shining from under the hat. It is strangely proportioned, has delicate feet but muscular legs, and is of indeterminate age, looking both like an old man and a child. The Ghost of Christmas Past shows Scrooge's visions of his past in order to help him understand how he became the grumpy man he is today.
The author specifically describes the appearance of the Ghost of the Christmas Past. The figure of the ghost is constantly transforming when the ghost mimics thinking about memories. Sometimes specific events come to the fore, and sometimes those thoughts fade and other details stand out as important. Also, the ghost represents the past of many people, not just Scrooge.
Scrooge is not persuaded of the value of visiting the Ghosts and is seeking an explanation. In the discussion, the Ghost of Christmas Past says he plays a crucial role. He also reveals that he can read Scrooge's thoughts. The ghost takes Scrooge to times, places, and situations to reveal to him how he became the man he is now.
The author also describes how Scrooge tries to kill the power of the Ghost of Christmas Past. As the ghost shows Scrooge more painful scenes to him, he puts a ghost hat in the shape of a candle extinguisher on the ghost's head. But the light cannot be turned off. Instead of going out like a candle, the bright light continues to shine below his hat. Scrooge may try to forget or ignore situations from his past, but they cannot be denied.
Ghost of Christmas Present
The second of three ghosts that haunt Scrooge on Christmas Eve. The cheerful giant represents Christmas joy, as can be seen from his initial description - he was dressed in a simple green dress, or cloak, adorned with white fur. On his head, he wore nothing but a holy wreath with glittering icicles. His dark brown curls were long and free, had a kind face, bright eyes, open arms, a cheerful voice, and a joyful posture. Ghost of the Christmas Present guides Scrooge around town to see the great divide between poor and rich, and also to make him see how even the poorest tend to find holiday joy. That ghost also hides skinny children, Ignorance, and Desire.
While the narrator describes the Ghost of the Christmas Present, Scrooge doesn't understand what or who he sees. While the ghost's joyful and genuine behavior may have made his identity obvious to those who regularly celebrate Christmas, Scrooge realizes he has never "walked" with any of them before. Readers can notice that because of the transformation that began in Scrooge, he's looking at this ghost "with respect".
The author explains that the more people honor Christmas, the happier and more powerful the Ghost of Christmas Present becomes. He spreads joy to all. Everyone has the right to be happier on Christmas, and the Ghost of Christmas Present helps them with that. On the opposite to what Scrooge may have thought at first, this "benign" happiness costs nothing, and everyone deserves such happiness.
The author also explains that the lifespan of the Ghost of Christmas Present lasts only as long as each Christmas season. On the twelfth night, the night before the Epiphany, or the official end of the twelve days of Christmas, the ghost seems to have visibly aged. Thus, despite the fact that Scrooge's vision appeared to last only one long night, Scrooge actually spent the entire Christmas season with the ghost, seeing its powerful influences on people near and far.
Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come
The last ghost that haunts Scrooge on Christmas Eve. He entered his life like a Grim Reaper - wrapped and hooded, like fog along with the earth. This ghost never speaks to Scrooge but pictures his visions of what Scrooge's future will be like if he doesn't change. He will die alone, mocked, and left in death. His money will amount to zero, and he will do nothing to help the despair of his friends, including Tiny Tim.
This ghost, as well as the future itself, arises as an unknowable and mysterious figure, literally wrapped in darkness. The author describes the scene when the ghost first appears to Scrooge. It leads Scrooge to some future events and points out the pieces that Scrooge needs to see, but doesn't answer any of his questions. Such silence makes both Scrooge and the reader terrified of this ghost.
Despite not speaking, the ghost easily speaks to Scrooge. He wants him to look at the corpse, but Scrooge refuses - he's too scared of what he might see. Later, when Scrooge still refuses to look at the dead man's face, the ghost takes him to the tombstone. Scrooge reads the stone and learns the lesson this ghost is trying to teach him.
Scrooge's words after he sees his name on the tombstone show that he knows he will be a dead man no one mourns. Scrooge asked if there was a way he could change his destiny, wishing that the ghost showed him his future as a changed man. The trembling hand of the ghost seems to show compassion for Scrooge. The ghost serves only as a messenger, and he feels sorry for Scrooge but may not know if Scrooge's future will change.
Serves as Scrooge's double as he was living the same greedy, mean life that Scrooge now lives. Like a ghost that is doomed to wander the world carrying a heavy chain representing his greed, he visits Scrooge, hoping to alert his only living "friend" to change his ways of thinking and avoid Marley's fate.
The author explains the relationship between Scrooge and Jacob Marley. Marley, who has been dead for seven years, had only one friend - Scrooge, who was his business partner. Work was Marley's only worry, and no one but Scrooge grieved him after his death. Readers assume that if Marley was Scrooge's only friend, with his death Scrooge was left completely alone.
The author describes the arrival of Marley's ghost. He looks like in life, except now he's transparent and wears numerous things that are related to his job. Scrooge finds out that the chain symbolizes Marley's punishment. As these things were his only concern in life, Marley must wear them forever. Also, Scrooge realizes that he has already made an identical chain himself. Marley's arrival alerts Scrooge to his possible fate.
Marley represents justice as his endless punishment. The choices he made in life, how he valued money and worked created the chains he now wears. He seems surprised that Scrooge first doesn't recognize what his chain is for. As Marley knows, Scrooge's invisible chain consists of the same things, as the two made the same choices and concentrated on the same things in their lives.
Watching Scrooge forge his invisible chain was some sort of Marley's punishment. Having been offered a surprising opportunity to share his experience, Marley feels bound to help Scrooge. People can change, but Scrooge refuses to change as he has been happy with his life. Despite Marley's sad looks and powerful words, Scrooge needs to be further reassured that he must change. So Marley was the first of four ghosts to visit Scrooge.
The youngest one of the Cratchit family. The author describes him as carrying a small crutch, and limbs that are supported by an iron frame. The untreated disease is thought to be the result of his family's poverty as Scrooge's low pay is not enough for Bob to search for proper medical care. As a result, the Tiny Team remains disabled. Despite his illness, Tiny Tim is "good as gold". When Scrooge first sees him, his death is unavoidable, but after Scrooge changes, Tiny Tim's fate is changed.
Bob Cratchit repeats the words of Tiny Tim. Rather than being sad due to the fact that his son can't walk, Tiny Tim is happy as he thinks his disability could benefit others. He wishes that his handicap and sorrow will make them happier at Christmas. Tiny Tim recalls the spiritual insight of a much older person, probably as a result of his illness and suffering. He represents the opposite characteristics of Scrooge.
After Scrooge asks the Ghost of Christmas Present what is the future of Tiny Tim, the ghost's answer clearly shows that, without financial help, he will soon die. Ghost says one of Scrooge's earlier passages about what poor people should do, words that Scrooge is now ashamed of. Scrooge finds it easier to identify with an individual rather than a group. Tiny Tim also helps with this connection.
No one in the family wants to think about Scrooge on Christmas Eve, not even Tiny Tim. The boy empathizes with almost everyone, but for him, Scrooge is a character he fears. Tiny Tim symbolizes a saint, but after all, he is just a child living in a cruel world.
Scrooge's nephew, Fred is a genius who adores Christmas. He invites his uncle to his Christmas party every year, but he always refuses.
Scrooge not only rejects the invitation but is insulted by the idea that he has been invited - he also dislikes Fred's marriage and Christmas festivities. But Fred is not insulted in return. He thinks that a sense of bitterness would spoil the Christmas spirit. Fred's visit represents the Christmas spirit: charity, forgiveness, and togetherness.
During the visit of the Ghost of Christmas Past, readers can see Scrooge with his younger sister Fanny, who loved him very much. Here the ghost shows that, even though she is long dead, her son Fred is alive. Scrooge remembers how much he loved Fanny. Her heart for him lives on in Fred's constant efforts to include Scrooge in his life. Scrooge's obvious dislike of Fred may arise from how much Fred reminds him of her.
After playing the game, Fred insists that his guests toast to Scrooge's health. Even though he never receives a kind word from Scrooge, Fred wishes him nothing but well. Fred's kindness represents the Christmas spirit.
Fezziwig - a merry merchant with whom young Scrooge studied. Fezziwig was known for its lavish Christmas parties.
Belle - is a beautiful woman whom Scrooge loved deeply. Belle broke off their engagement after noticing that Scrooge was overwhelmed by a desire for wealth and greed. She later married another man but remembers Scrooge with sadness.
Peter Cratchit - Bob's eldest son. For Christmas, he inherits his father's shirt with a stiff collar.
Martha Cratchit - Bob's eldest daughter. She works in a fashion shop for the person who designs and sells hats.
Fanny - Scrooge's sister and Fred's mother. In Scrooge's vision, he remembers Fanny picking him up from school and taking him home.
Two Gentlemen - two gentlemen visiting Scrooge at the beginning of the story asking for charitable donations, but Scrooge kicked them. After meeting one of them on the street after a visit, he promises to make lavish donations to help the poor.
Mrs. Cratchit - Bob's wife, a kind and loving woman.